Summary[ edit ] An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States argues that the structure of the Constitution of the United States was motivated primarily by the personal financial interests of the Founding Fathers ; Beard contends that the authors of The Federalist Papers represented an interest group themselves. More specifically, Beard contends that the Constitutional Convention was attended by, and the Constitution was therefore written by, a "cohesive" elite seeking to protect its personal property especially federal bonds and economic standing. Beard examined the occupations and property holdings of the members of the convention from tax and census records, contemporaneous news accounts, and biographical sources, demonstrating the degree to which each stood to benefit from various Constitutional provisions.
The decline was hastened by outside pressure from the so-called barbarians of eastern Europe, strengthening regional identities within the empire notably in Gaul led by the Merovingian Frankish monarchy, A minority document charles beard internal political squabbling.
The lack of internal cohesion within the failing empire is reflected by the accession of nine emperors in the thirty year period which followed the murder of Emperor Valentinian III inall from different families and only four of whom were Italian by birth. The division of the empire into its eastern and western components, first formalised by Emperor Valentinian I inwas a further factor which contributed to decline, although ironically it enabled imperial government to survive in the east long after the empire in the west had disintegrated.
He was rewarded for his military service by appointment as Count of Africa in by Emperor Constantine I, but was later disgraced. He was appointed count in Brittany by Emperor Constans.
He received the usurper Magnentius in Pannonia in Sepbut Emperor Constantius confiscated all his assets in reprisal . Ammianus Marcellinus implies, but does not state explicitly, that "Valentinianus" was the son of "Gratianus maior ignobili stirpe" .
A member of the personal guard of Emperor Julian, he was disgraced and returned to Pannonia. Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem" and that he renounced "fratrem…Valentem" and Arianism .
He formalised a division of the empire into east and west in Junretaining the latter part while his brother ruled in the former .
The Chronicon Paschale records the death "in castello Vergitione" of "Valentinianus Augustus" aged 55 . Theophanes records that "Valentinianus senior" repudiated "Severa uxore Gratiani matre" in and married "Iustinam" .
The Chronicon Paschale records that "Gratianus Augustus" revoked "Marinam matrem suam Augustam" after his father died . Theophanes records that "Valentinianus senior" repudiated "Severa uxore Gratiani matre" in and married "Iustinam" .
Zosimus records that the mother of "minorem Valentiniani filium" was "Magnentii prius uxor", and names her "Iustina" in a later passage . Iordanes names "Gratiano Valentiniano fratre de Iustina secunda uxore natu" when recording his accession . Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem" .
He renounced the title Pontifex maximus, borne by all emperors since Augustus . He was forced to flee by the usurper Maximus, was captured at Lyon and executed .
Ammianus Marcellinus records that "Constantium…uxorem" gave birth to "[filia] posthuma, eiusque nomine appellata" and that she married "Gratiano" . Zosimus names "Laeta, Gratiani quondam principis coniux" and "eiusque mater Pissamena" when recording that Emperor Theodosius granted them a pension .
Theophanes names "Valentinianum iuniorem" as the son of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam" . The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Valentinianus Gratiani frater et Theodosius imperatores" defeated the rebel "Maximum tyrannum et Victorem filius eius" at Aquileia in .
Emperor Valentinian was probably assassinated . Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam" .
Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam" .
Theophanes names "Iustam, Gratam et Gallam" as the three daughters of "Valentinianus senior" and his second wife "Iustinam", adding that "magnus Theodosius" married Galla as his second wife .
The Chronicle of Marcellinus records that "Galla Theodosii regis altera uxor" came to Constantinople in . The Chronicle of Marcellinus also records that "Gallia Theodosii uxor" was expelled by "Arcadio privigno suo" in . She died in childbirth. Theophanes records that "Valentinianus Augustus" was installed as emperor "cum Gratianum filium imperii collegam…et consulem" and that he renounced "fratrem…Valentem" and Arianism .
After the division of the empire into east and west in JunEmperor Valens ruled in the east, at first from Constantinople and later from Antioch . Theophanes records that "Domnicam Valentis coniugem" retained the Aryan religion .James Madison () - 'the Father of the American Constitution' - was a legal and political thinker of great originality and range.
The essays by eminent scholars reprinted in this volume explore various facets and aspects of Madison's legal, constitutional and political thought. The constitution I/ Introduction: The articles of confederation II/ The constitution: a minority document (Charles BEARD ) 1) The economicint Scribd is the .
|50 Documents That Tell America’s Story||UNHCR is not responsible for, nor does it necessarily endorse, its content.|
|Charles Barbour: On Kooks, Black Families and His Wife | Jackson Free Press | Jackson, MS||Up to his usual stellar standard but, as we lost him two years ago, the pages sang like a threnody. I shall have to start at the beginning again and work my way through the oeuvre.|
|Charles Keeping - Wikiquote||A Sad Tale of Parchment Idolatry.|
|Search form||LeBron James was the shining exception, but even he left again. Experiencing his departure once already also softened the blow, as Cavs fans and personnel seemed more primed and accepting this time.|
Political system - Autocratic versus nonautocratic rule: The foregoing discussion has suggested a distinction among political systems in terms of the role played by force in the acquisition and transfer of power. The role of force is vital, also, in distinguishing among political systems in terms of the exercise and control of power.
Here the contrast is . Mark Charles delivered the first of four lectures on “The Doctrine of Discovery, Racial Justice, and the Mission of the Church” at Peace Fellowship Church on Monday, June 5.
Speaking to a largely white, millennial audience, he focused on the systemic racism of white America and on the. TOAST. Books by Charles Stross. Singularity Sky. The Atrocity Archive.
Iron Sunrise. The Family Trade. The Hidden Family. Accelerando. TOAST. Charles . Fifty Orwell Essays, by George Orwell, free ebook.