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Plot summary[ edit ] The novel is based on the fictional "Everhard Manuscript" written by Avis Everhard which she hid and which was subsequently found centuries later. In addition, this novel has an introduction and series of often lengthy footnotes written from the perspective of scholar Anthony Meredith.
Meredith writes from around AD or B. Jack London writes at two levels, often having Meredith condescendingly correcting the errors of Everhard yet, at the same time, exposing the often incomplete understanding of this distant future perspective.
Meredith's introduction also acts as a deliberate " spoiler " the term did not yet exist at the time of writing.
Before ever getting a chance to get to know Avis and Ernest, how they fell in love or how Avis became politically involved, the reader is already told that all their struggles and hopes would end in total failure and repression, and that both of them would be summarily executed.
This gives all that follows the air of a foreordained tragedy. The book begins with the acquaintance of Avis Cunningham, a daughter of a renowned physicist with the socialist Ernest Evergard.
At first, Avis does not agree with Ernest in that the whole contemporary social system is based on exploitation of labour. However, she proceeds to investigate the conditions the workers live in and those terrible conditions make her change her mind and accept Ernest's worldview.
Similarly, Bishop Morehouse does not initially believe in the horrors described by Ernest but then becomes convinced in their truth and is confined to a madhouse because of his new views.
The Manuscript itself covers the years through in which the Oligarchy or "Iron Heel" arose in the United States. In Asia, Japan conquered East Asia and created its own empire, India gained independence, and Europe became socialist.
Canada, Mexico, and Cuba formed their own Oligarchies and were aligned with the U. In North America, the Oligarchy maintains power for three centuries until the Revolution succeeds and ushers in the Brotherhood of Man.
Jack London’s White Fang: Summary “White Fang” starts out with 2 men and a group of 6 sled dogs traveling across the Arctic with a dead man in a coffin. This group was . Exceptional artist-faculty of The Perlman Music Program teach at the Summer Music School and Chamber Music Workshop on Shelter Island, the Winter Residency in Sarasota, the Fall Residency in Stowe, the Israel Residency, and throughout the year provide mentorship support to students and alumni. Get the latest news and analysis in the stock market today, including national and world stock market news, business news, financial news and more.
During the years of the novel, the First Revolt is described and preparations for the Second Revolt are discussed. From the perspective of Everhard, the imminent Second Revolt is sure to succeed but from Meredith's frame storythe reader knows that Ernest Everhard's hopes would go unfulfilled until centuries after his death.
The Oligarchy is the largest monopoly of trusts or robber barons who manage to squeeze out the middle class by bankrupting most small to mid-sized business as well as reducing all farmers to effective serfdom.
This Oligarchy maintains power through a "labor caste " and the Mercenaries. Laborers in essential industries like steel and rail are elevated and given decent wages, housing, and education.
Indeed, the tragic turn in the novel and Jack London's core warning to his contemporaries is the treachery of these favored unions which break with the other unions and side with the Oligarchy.
Further, a second, military caste is formed: The Mercenaries are officially the army of the US but are in fact in the employ of the Oligarchs. Asgard is the name of a fictional wonder-city, a city constructed by the Oligarchy to be admired and appreciated as well as lived in.
Thousands of proletarians live in terrible poverty there, and are used whenever a public work needs to be completed, such as the building of a levee or a canal. The Manuscript is Everhard's autobiography as she tells of: By telling the story of Avis Everhard, the novel is essentially an adventurous tale heavily strewn with social commentary of an alternative future from a perspective.
However, the future perspective of the scholar Meredith deepens the tragic plight of Everhard and her revolutionary comrades.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message Jack London ambitiously predicted a breakdown of the US republic starting a few years pastbut various events have caused his predicted future to diverge from actual history.
Most crucially, though London placed quite accurately the time when international tensions will reach their peak in "The Iron Heel", in actual historyhe like many others at the time predicted that when this moment came, labor solidarity would prevent a war that would include the US, Germany and other nations.
Further, London assumed that the Socialist Party would become a mass party in the United States, strong enough to have a realistic chance of winning national elections and gaining power, while remaining a revolutionary party still committed to the dismantling of capitalism.
The whole book is based on Marx's view that capitalism is inherently unsustainable. This would precipitate a brutal counter-reaction, with capitalists preserving their power by discarding democracy and instituting a brutal repressive regime.
Although this exact scenario never came to pass in the US, where the Socialist Party remained small and marginal, events closely followed London's script elsewhere; for example, in Chile inwhere the government of socialist president Salvador Allende was overthrown by a CIA-backed coup led by General Augusto Pinochet.
This prompted later publishers of London's book to use a cover illustration depicting a poster of Allende being ground beneath the heel of a boot[ citation needed ]. The idea of a strong and militant mass Socialist Party emerging in the US was linked by London with his prediction that the middle class would shrink as monopolistic trusts crushed labor and small- to mid-sized businesses.
At the same time, reforms such as labor unions rights were passed during the Progressive Era, with further reforms during the New Deal of the s.
Further, economic prosperity led to dramatic growth of the middle class in the s and after World War II. Through the writing of Everhard and, particularly, the distant future perspective of Meredith, London demonstrated his belief in the historical materialism of Marxismwhich some[ who?
London's novella The Scarlet Plagueand some of his short stories, are placed in a dystopian future setting that closely resembles that of The Iron Heel, although there is no actual continuity of situations or characters.May 09, · White Fang hates Beauty, for he is a merciless and violent master.
He repeatedly tries to return to Gray Beaver, but the Indian, who is very honorable, always returns White Fang to his new owner. In spite of his weaknesses, Gray Beaver, for the most part, is a faithful master to White Fang. Thematic Analysis of Jack London's White Fang - Thematic Analysis of Jack London's White Fang White Fang, written by Jack London, is a wonderful adventure novel that vividly depicts the life of a wolf by the name of White Fang.
Jack London () found fame with his wolf-dog tales and sagas of the frozen North, but Cecelia Tichi challenges the long-standing view of London as merely a mass-market producer of potboilers. White Fang is Jack London's counterpart to The Call of the Wild, dealing with many of the same themes while the story runs in the opposite direction.
While Call was about a domesticated dog. NOTES FROM ABOVE GROUND. By Honey van Blossom (Honey is a Belgian Marxist former strip-tease artiste) Some of those fascinated by Jack London seem to see aspects of themselves in him.
Most of his readers think of his having an adventurous life, and he did. Thematic Analysis of Jack London's White Fang White Fang, written by Jack London, is a wonderful adventure novel that vividly depicts the life of a wolf by the name of White Fang.
Throughout the course of the novel, White Fang goes through numerous learning experiences as he interacts with humans and other wolves from Alaska around the turn of the century.