Aid to victims of terrorism. Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery, and it is the largest manifestation of slavery today. At leastpersons annually, primarily women and children, are trafficked within or across international borders.
NumberSeptember Committee on Health Care for Underserved Women This information should not be construed as dictating an exclusive course of treatment or procedure to be followed. Human trafficking is a widespread problem with estimates ranging from 14, to 50, individuals trafficked into the United States annually.
This hidden population involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic workers, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms. The exploitation of people of any race, gender, sexual orientation, or ethnicity is unacceptable at any time, in any place.
The members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists should be aware of this problem and strive to recognize and assist their patients who are victims or who have been victims of human trafficking. Background Human trafficking is defined as "the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery" 1.
Largely unrecognized, annual trafficking estimates have ranged from 14, to 50, individuals in the United States 2. Many experts think current reported statistics vastly underestimate the scope of the problem. Although states that border Canada and Mexico and states with major ports are points of entry, the problem exists in all states because trafficking networks quickly move people across the country.
Trafficked individuals have been reported in all states in the United States; however, accurate data are not available because of the difficulty in identifying trafficked individuals. Trafficked individuals fear identification.
In addition, the networks responsible for trafficking are adept at eluding law enforcement. Traffickers and those being trafficked have complex relationships with each other. In some cases those trafficked may be related to their captors, fear for their safety, or feel they would not survive without the assistance of the trafficker.
Federal legislation, passed in and reauthorized in, andaimed to punish traffickers, protect and free victims, and eliminate human trafficking, is not well known or well enforced, and few trafficked individuals can afford legal representation 1, 3. From to only 2, foreign national victims of human trafficking have been certified by the Department of Health and Human Services 4.
This significant lack of victim identification underscores the need to better educate the public and governmental officials about this ubiquitous problem.
Characteristics of Individuals Being Trafficked Individuals who are trafficked have many faces. No racial or ethnic group is spared; however, vulnerable people, such as those of war-torn areas or economically poor areas are more commonly subjected to human trafficking.
Some are unwittingly ensnared by human traffickers, whereas others are desperate to escape their circumstances and then find themselves enslaved in a worse situation. No community is immune to this problem.
Many are paid little or nothing for their services and fear deportation because they often do not have any identification papers. Rates of sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection are prevalent among these victims 6. One million children, most of whom are girls, are exploited in the global commercial sex trade every year 7.
Many of these children are violated by sexual actstimes per year 8. States vary in their definition of underaged sex as well as their definition of a minor regarding prostitution laws.
In addition, the Department of Homeland Security and U. Immigration and Customs Enforcement have a program called Operation Predator, which aims to identify and prevent child predators from traveling in and out of the United States.
Refer to the Resources section for contact numbers to report Americans suspected of engaging in sex tourism and to report suspected cases of child sexual abuse. Forms of Human Trafficking Trafficking involves the commercial sex industry, agriculture, factories, hotel and restaurant businesses, domestic help, marriage brokers, and some adoption firms.
Any form of human trafficking may be operated by organized crime, individuals, or both. Forced bondage involves placing the victim at the mercy of their employer as can be seen in migrant workers. Migrant workers are separated from their social support and their families at home who often are counting on their wages and are forced to tolerate inhumane working and living conditions, usually earning less than what was originally promised.
Involuntary servitude poses a unique challenge because it is especially difficult to identify these cases, most of which occur in private homes. Many of these victims, mostly women, are abused physically, emotionally, and sexually 9. Challenges of Human Trafficking The most challenging aspect of addressing human trafficking is identifying the victims, which is problematic for several reasons.
Victims may not perceive themselves as trafficked individuals. They may fear retaliation by the trafficker; lack knowledge of resources to help themselves; and face many cultural, social, and language barriers.
Some of these aspects are analogous to the difficulties in identifying victims of domestic violence or prostitution. Identifying victims is the first step in an effective strategy to combat trafficking. Although recognizing trafficked individuals is difficult, having some knowledge of its existence allows for the possibility of recognition.
Many service providers and community members are on the frontline of contact with victims of human trafficking.
Health clinics, hospitals, social welfare offices, and police frequently and unknowingly experience face-to-face contact with trafficked individuals. Obstetrician-gynecologists may be key to the identification of trafficked individuals.United States Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-based Violence Globally 5 overview Under the leadership of President Obama and Secretary Clinton, the United States has put gender.
Under its human trafficking program, the Bureau investigates matters where a person was induced to engage in commercial sex acts or perform any labor or service through force, fraud, or coercion.
The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in , to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.
Why Gun Violence is a Human Rights Crisis. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms that all people are entitled to regardless of nationality, sex, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, language, or other status.
Among high-income countries, the United States accounts for. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of Share. October 28, H.R One Hundred Sixth Congress of the United States of America. AT THE SECOND SESSION Begun and held at the City of Washington on Monday, COMMERCIAL SEX ACT- The term `commercial sex act' means any sex act on account of which anything of value is.
Human trafficking, believed to be the third-largest criminal activity in the world, is a form of human slavery which must be addressed at the interagency level. Human trafficking includes forced.