Martinus Beijerinck in his laboratory in The word virus appeared in and originally meant "venom".
Pelagic zone The open ocean is relatively unproductive because of a lack of nutrients, yet because it is so vast, in total it produces the most primary productivity.
The open ocean is separated into different zones, and the different zones each have different ecologies. Zones which vary by the amount of light they receive include the photic and aphotic zones.
Much of the aphotic zone's energy is supplied by the open ocean in the form of detritus. Deep sea and trenches[ edit ] A deep-sea chimaera. Its snout is covered with tiny pores capable of detecting animals by perturbations in electric fields. At such depths, water pressure is extreme and there is no sunlight, but some life still exists.
A white flatfisha shrimp and a jellyfish were seen by the American crew of the bathyscaphe Trieste when it dove to the bottom in Marine life also flourishes around seamounts that rise from the depths, where fish and other sea life congregate to spawn and feed.
Hydrothermal vents along the mid-ocean ridge spreading centers act as oasesas do their opposites, cold seeps. Such places support unique biomes and many new microbes and other lifeforms have been discovered at these locations.
Most involve studying specializations of particular animal groups, such as phycologyinvertebrate zoology and ichthyology. Other subfields study the physical effects of continual immersion in sea water and the ocean in general, adaptation to a salty environment, and the effects of changing various oceanic properties on marine life.
A subfield of marine biology studies the relationships between oceans and ocean life, and global warming and environmental issues such as carbon dioxide displacement. Recent marine biotechnology has focused largely on marine biomoleculesespecially proteinsthat may have uses in medicine or engineering.
Marine environments are the home to many exotic biological materials that may inspire biomimetic materials. Related fields[ edit ] Marine biology is a branch of biology.
It is closely linked to oceanography and may be regarded as a sub-field of marine science. It also encompasses many ideas from ecology. Fisheries science and marine conservation can be considered partial offshoots of marine biology as well as environmental studies.
Marine Chemistry, Physical oceanography and Atmospheric sciences are closely related to this field. Distribution factors[ edit ] An active research topic in marine biology is to discover and map the life cycles of various species and where they spend their time.
Technologies that aid in this discovery include pop-up satellite archival tagsacoustic tagsand a variety of other data loggers. Marine biologists study how the ocean currentstides and many other oceanic factors affect ocean life forms, including their growth, distribution and well-being.
This has only recently become technically feasible with advances in GPS and newer underwater visual devices. Scientists know little about where many species spend different parts of their life cycles especially in the infant and juvenile years. For example, it is still largely unknown where juvenile sea turtles and some year-1 sharks travel.
Recent advances in underwater tracking devices are illuminating what we know about marine organisms that live at great Ocean depths.
This data is important to both scientists and fishermen because they are discovering that by restricting commercial fishing in one small area they can have a large impact in maintaining a healthy fish population in a much larger area.High School Biology Resources.
Here are some of our best free educational activities, models and software tools for teaching biology to high school students. Brought to you by The Concord Consortium. “Wish I learned science this way—far more interesting than reading chapters in a book.
You're currently viewing our resources for Biology. For additional assistance, you should refer to the discussion forum for this course. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY An official journal of the Society for Developmental Biology AUTHOR INFORMATION PACK TABLE OF CONTENTS.
XXX. • Description • Audience • Impact Factor • Abstracting and Indexing • Editorial Board • Guide for Authors p.1 . Tutorial to the research paper outline.
It helps you through the steps of writing a research paper. do not be afraid to ask for advice on the best research paper format for your report Layout and Length.
For most assessed reports you will be told how long it should be, generally by the number of words.
Check Out the Official Book. Robert D. Griffin, M.A., has been teaching biology for 27 years. For the last 19 years he has been on the faculty of City College of San Francisco, where he has taught biology courses ranging from . Argument-Driven Inquiry in Biology is your one-stop source for both information and instructional materials.
The book starts by introducing you to the stages of argument-driven inquiry. These stages range from question identification, data analysis, and argument development to double-blind peer review and report revision.