Osteosarcomas are usually found because of the symptoms they are causing. Pain and swelling Pain in the affected bone usually around the knee or in the upper arm is the most common symptom of osteosarcoma.
Although other types of cancer can eventually spread to parts of the skeleton, osteosarcoma is one of the few that actually begin in bones and sometimes spread or metastasize elsewhere, usually to the lungs or other bones. Because osteosarcoma usually develops from osteoblasts the cells that make growing boneit most commonly affects teens who are having a growth spurt.
Boys are more likely to have osteosarcoma than girls, and most cases of osteosarcoma involve the knee. Most osteosarcomas arise from random and unpredictable errors in the DNA of growing bone cells during times of intense bone growth.
But Osteosarcoma cancer and tumor the proper diagnosis and treatment, most kids with osteosarcoma recover. Risk for Childhood Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is most often seen in teenage boys.
Teens diagnosed with osteosarcoma tend to be tall for their age, suggesting that rapid bone growth may lead to the disease. Kids who have inherited one of the rare cancer syndromes also are at higher risk for osteosarcoma.
Because exposure to radiation is another trigger for DNA mutations, children who have received radiation treatments for an earlier cancer are also at increased risk for osteosarcoma.
Symptoms of Osteosarcoma The most common symptoms of osteosarcoma are pain and swelling in the leg or arm. It happens most often in the longer bones of the body — such as above or below the knee or in the upper arm near the shoulder.
Pain may be worse during exercise or at night, and a lump or swelling may form in the affected area up to several weeks after the pain starts. Pain that often wakes the child up at night or pain at rest are of particular concern. In osteosarcoma of the leg, a child also may develop an unexplained limp.
In some cases, the first sign of the disease is a broken arm or leg, which happens because the cancer has weakened the bone and made it vulnerable to a break. Diagnosing Osteosarcoma To diagnose osteosarcoma, a doctor will do a physical exam, take a detailed medical historyand order X-rays to detect any changes in bone structure.
The biopsy can be done by cutting or scraping a small piece of the tissue or by withdrawing a sample of tissue with a needle and syringe.
In a needle biopsy, doctors use a long hollow needle to take a sample of the tumor. Or the doctor may order an open biopsy, in which a portion of the tumor is removed in the operating room by a surgeon while the child is asleep during the procedure under general anesthesia. If a diagnosis of osteosarcoma is made, the doctor will order CT chest scans as well as a bone scan and, sometimes, more MRI studies.
After treatment starts, repeating these tests will help doctors see how well treatment is working and whether the cancer is continuing to spread.
Treating Osteosarcoma Treatment of osteosarcoma in children includes chemotherapy the use of medical drugs to kill cancer cells and shrink the cancerfollowed by surgery to remove cancerous cells or tumorsand then more chemo to kill any remaining cancer cells and minimize chances of the cancer coming back.Bone cancer is a malignant tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue ().Not all bone tumors are malignant.
In fact, benign (noncancerous) bone tumors are more common than malignant ones. Both malignant and benign bone tumors may grow and compress healthy bone tissue, but benign tumors do not spread, do not destroy bone . Doctors often recommend using chemotherapy before surgery for osteosarcoma, to reduce the size of the tumor, and after surgery, to kill any cancer cells that may remain.
Radiation therapy in select cases.
The outlook (prognosis) and treatment decisions depend on where the osteosarcoma starts, tumor size, the type and grade of osteosarcoma, and whether the cancer has spread. After completion of treatment, people need lifelong monitoring for potential late effects of intense chemotherapy.
Osteosarcoma, sometimes called osteogenic sarcoma, is the most common kind of bone cancer in children and teens. It can affect adults, too, but teenage boys are most likely to get it. It happens. Osteosarcoma (also called osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common type of cancer that starts in the bones.
The cancer cells in these tumors look like early forms of bone cells that normally help make new bone tissue, but the bone tissue in an osteosarcoma is not as strong as that of normal bones. Doctors often recommend using chemotherapy before surgery for osteosarcoma, to reduce the size of the tumor, and after surgery, to kill any cancer cells that may remain.
Radiation therapy in select cases.