At the highest level, this refers to a split between stocks and bonds.
These words were popularized in English by the Scottish surgeon James Braid to whom they are sometimes wrongly attributed around Braid based his practice on that developed by Franz Mesmer and his followers which was called "Mesmerism" or " animal magnetism "but differed in his theory as to how the procedure worked.
Characteristics[ edit ] A person in a state of hypnosis has focused attention, and has increased suggestibility.
In a hypnotic state an individual tends to see, feel, smell, and otherwise perceive in accordance with the hypnotist's suggestions, even though these suggestions may be in apparent contradiction to the actual stimuli present in the environment. The effects of hypnosis are not limited to sensory change; even the subject's memory and awareness of self may be altered by suggestion, and the effects of the suggestions may be extended posthypnotically into the subject's subsequent waking activity.
For example, inIrving Kirsch characterised hypnosis as a "nondeceptive placebo", i. Scheflin and psychologist Jerrold Lee Shapiro observed that the "deeper" the hypnotism, the more likely a particular characteristic is to appear, and the greater extent to which it is manifested.
Scheflin and Shapiro identified 20 separate characteristics that hypnotized subjects might display: Historical definitions[ edit ] The earliest definition of hypnosis was given by Braid[ contradictory ], who coined the term "hypnotism" as an abbreviation for "neuro-hypnotism", or nervous sleep, which he contrasted with normal sleep, and defined as: The hypnotic sleep, therefore, is the very antithesis or opposite mental and physical condition to that which precedes and accompanies common sleep Therefore, Braid defined hypnotism as a state of mental concentration that often leads to a form of progressive relaxation, termed "nervous sleep".
Hypnosis typically involves an introduction to the procedure during which the subject is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented. The hypnotic induction is an extended initial suggestion for using one's imagination, and may contain further elaborations of the introduction.
A hypnotic procedure is used to encourage and evaluate responses to suggestions. When using hypnosis, one person the subject is guided by another the hypnotist to respond to suggestions for changes in subjective experience, alterations in perception,   sensation,  emotion, thought or behavior.
Persons can also learn self-hypnosis, which is the act of administering hypnotic procedures on one's own. If the subject responds to hypnotic suggestions, it is generally inferred that hypnosis has been induced.
Many believe that hypnotic responses and experiences are characteristic of a hypnotic state. While some think that it is not necessary to use the word "hypnosis" as part of the hypnotic induction, others view it as essential. Janetnear the turn of the century, and more recently Ernest Hilgard Social psychologists Sarbin and Coe Hypnosis is a role that people play; they act "as if" they were hypnotised.
In his early writings, Weitzenhoffer They explain this by pointing out that, in a sense, all learning is post-hypnotic, which explains why the number of ways people can be put into a hypnotic state are so varied: Hypnotic induction Hypnosis is normally preceded by a "hypnotic induction" technique.Where non-cash gifts of capital property (such as gold or stocks) are made to a person other than your spouse, the property is deemed to be sold at its fair market value for income tax purposes.
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