With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations in the river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation. To be able to function in complex societies, man needed some way of accumulating, recording, and preserving his cultural heritage. So with the rise of trade, government, and formal religion came the invention of writing, by about BC. Because firsthand experience in everyday living could not teach such skills as writing and reading, a place devoted exclusively to learning--the school--appeared.
Skellig Michael, also known as Great Skellig, is a steep rocky island in the Atlantic Ocean about Clovis I — Clovis or Chlodowech was the first King of the Franks to unite all the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the leadership from a group of royal chieftains, to rule by kings, ensuring that the kingship was held by his heirs.
Charles Martel, also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks.
Norse colonization of the Americas — The Norse colonization of the Americas began as early as the 10th century, when Norse sailors explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic, including the northeastern fringes of North America.
High Middle Ages Holy Roman Empire in Germany and central Europe, established in survives until Feudalism — Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
Catholic Church — The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with more than one billion members.
Crusades — The Crusades were a series of religious expeditionary wars blessed by the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the stated goal of restoring Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem. Some of these institutions continued into modern times. Scholasticism — Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics of medieval universities in Europe from about —, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending orthodoxy in an increasingly pluralistic context.
Magna Carta — Magna Carta, also called Magna Carta Libertatum, is an English charter, originally issued in the year and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions. University — A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education.
Hundred Years War — An extremely protracted conflict between England and France lasting from to Ottoman Turks — The Ottoman Turks were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes. Middle class — The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy, also known as bourgeoisie, or burghers.
Renaissance and reformation[ edit ] Main article: Renaissance Italian Renaissance — The Italian Renaissance was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy around the end of the 13th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Romanesque architecture — Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. Johannes Gutenberg — Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe.
Vasco da Gama — Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira, was a Portuguese explorer, one of the most successful in the Age of Discovery and the commander of the first ships to sail directly from Europe to India.
Nicolaus Copernicus — Nicolaus Copernicus was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe.
Protestant Reformation Protestantism — a denomination of Christianity formed by Martin Lutherwhich split from Catholicism in the early 16th Century, causing much conflict and strife. Reformation — a term referring to the process by which Protestantism emerged and gained supporters.
Counter Reformation — the backlash to the Reformation by Catholicismresulting in a great deal of fighting, most notably the 30 Years War. Rise of Western empires: Mercantilism — Mercantilism is the economic doctrine in which government control of foreign trade is of paramount importance for ensuring the prosperity and military security of the state.
Age of Enlightenment — The period during which superstitions were rejected in favor of science and logictypically thought of as the dawn of modern science. French Revolution — The French Revolution, was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France that had a major impact on France and indeed all of Europe.
Mary Wollstonecraft — Mary Wollstonecraft was an 18th-century British writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. French invasion of Russia — A disastrous military campaign in which Napoleonwith his armies, attempted to seize Russia.
Instead of fighting conventionally, Russian forces merely retreated, taking all of the food with them, resulting in Napoleon reaching Moscow but his armies dying of hunger.
Constitutional monarchy — Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified, or blended constitution. Abolitionism — Abolitionism is a movement to end slavery.
Canada — Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Australia — The history of Australia from — covers the early colonies period of Australia's history, from the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney to establish the penal colony of New South Wales in to the European exploration of the continent and establishment of other colonies and the beginnings of autonomous democratic government.
Confederate States of America — The Confederate States of America was a government set up from to by eleven Southern slave states that had declared their secession from the United States.
Fall of the Spanish Empire:During the agricultural revolution in the s, wealthy landowners increased food production by The British business class had large profits to invest Which of the following is a reason explaining why Britain took the lead in the Industrial Revolution?
Significant people and publications. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution.
During the late s, industrialization spread to Russia and Japan, in both cases by government initiatives. By Japan was the most industrialized land . Significant people and publications. The Age of Enlightenment was preceded by and closely associated with the scientific revolution. Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza. The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, . Industrial Revolution – The Industrial Revolution was a period from to where changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times.
Earlier philosophers whose work influenced the Enlightenment included Bacon, Descartes, Locke, and Spinoza. The major figures of the Enlightenment included Beccaria, Diderot, Hume, Kant, . One major cause was population growth during the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries Population of Europe nearly doubled between and , though causes are unclear Population decline in the seventeenth century was due to food shortages.
The History of Education.
Edited By: Robert Guisepi. Early Civilizations. With the gradual rise of more complex civilizations in the river valleys of Egypt and Babylonia, knowledge became too complicated to transmit directly from person to person and from generation to generation. Rise of Western Dominance A combination of economic and political transformations in Europe that began in the to era converged between and to allow the "west" (including the United States and Australia) to dominate the rest of the world.
During the late s, industrialization spread to Russia and Japan, in both cases by government initiatives.
By Japan was the most industrialized land .