Theoretical to practical, reform, progress: The scientific revolution can be seen as a major aspect of the sweeping and far-reaching changes of the Renaissance. In broad terms the scientific revolution had four major aspects:
Contemporary wood engraving, artist unknown, reproduced in the edition of La Response de Maistre Jean Bodin. Drawing attributed to Dubreuil.
Most of them began as lectures or were written in tributary volumes. They were first published together, as a book bearing the title of the first essay, Religion, the Reformation and Social Change.
The book was published by Messrs. Macmillan in London in An American edition was published in by Messrs. The book enjoyed a modest success. A second edition, published in London inwas reprinted in and and it has been translated, in whole or in part, into German, French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Japanese.
A third and revised edition of the English text was published in London by Messrs. Secker and Warburg in I am naturally delighted that the Liberty Fund has now chosen to publish a new edition of this revised text in America.
It is customary for those who publish collected essays to claim that, however disparate in subject or appearance, they are coherent expressions of a single philosophy or a recurrent theme.
Many able historians have devoted themselves to the study of the Puritan Revolution in England, and some of them have ascribed to it a unique importance in modern history, as if it had been the beginning both of the Scientific and of the Industrial Revolution.
I venture to think that this is too insular a view, and one which cannot survive a study of comparable developments in Europe. Therefore, in considering the problems raised by the Puritan Revolution, I have looked at them, where possible, in a European context; and for this reason I have placed together, in this book, essays both on European and on English or rather British subjects.
This thesis has become a sociological dogma in some places and is opposed as it seems to me on irrelevant grounds in others. My own modification was originally presented in a lecture delivered in in Galway, where an audience powerfully reinforced by local monks and nuns gave it an unsympathetic but, I felt, not very critical reception: Because of its local origin my essay was first published in the proceedings of the Irish Conference of Historians at which it had been presented.
It also excited some controversy, and the essay, together with some of the responses which it had elicited, was reprinted in an anthology of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century essays first published in that journal. One of those who took part in that discussion was the distinguished French historian Roland Mousnier.
In the course of his contribution he remarked that the general crisis of the seventeenth century was even wider than the crisis in the relation between the State and society in which I had concerned myself.
The persecution of witches is, to some, a disgusting subject, below the dignity of history. In England the most active phase of witch-hunting coincided with times of Puritan pressure—the reign of Queen Elizabeth and the period of the civil wars—and some very fanciful theories have been built on this coincidence.
But here again we must look at the whole problem before venturing general conclusions—especially since the persecution of witches in England was trivial compared with the experience of the Continent and of Scotland.
Therefore in my essay I have looked at the craze as a whole, throughout Europe, and have sought to relate its rise, frequency and decline to the general intellectual and social movements of the time, from which I believe it to be inseparable.
Mousnier, by his juxtaposition of phrases, seemed to imply—I do not know whether this was his intention—that the growth of witchcraft coincided with the decline of Aristoteleanism. It will be seen that I hold a very different view.Dissertations by year, Cook, Warren Lawrence, Spain in the Pacific Northwest, A History of Secondary Education in Eighteenth Century New England.
Schlesinger, Mildred Saks. Studies in the Transcendence and Abolition of Time in Twentieth-century European Thought Atherton, Herbert M.
Enlightenment, French siècle des Lumières (literally “century of the Enlightened”), German Aufklärung, a European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and humanity were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent in the West and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics.
Mary Wollstonecraft was one of England's earliest feminist philosophers. Hobbes also developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought: The cultural exchange during the Age of Enlightenment ran in both directions across the Atlantic.
Thinkers such as Paine. The 18th-century Enlightenment forms the basis of World Observer's approach to understanding After the Toleration Act of , Unitarianism was openly professed in England, and during the 18th century it began to gain adherents in New England as well.
des arts et des metiers, an encyclopedia that reflected European intellectual thought. The history of science during the Age of Enlightenment traces developments in science and technology during the and associated scientific advancement with the overthrow of religion and traditional authority in favour of the development of free speech and thought.
As public interest in natural philosophy grew during the 18th century. Expansion continued during the next century, and congregations of Christians were dispersed as far eastward as Arbela in Persia, and westward to Vienne and Lyon in Gaul (modern France).
Obviously, the political, linguistic, and cultural diversity of these communities was enormous, and the problem of communication overwhelming.