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See Article History Alternative Titles: Guomindang]known as the father of modern China. Early life and influences Sun was born to a family of poor farmers in Xiangshan, in the South China province of Guangdong.
In his brother Sun Mei, who had earlier emigrated to Hawaii as a labourer, brought him to Honoluluwhere, as a student at a British missionary school for three years and at an American school, Oahu College, for another year, he first came into contact with Western influences.
Because his brother objected to his penchant for Christianity, Sun returned to his native village in and went to study at the Diocesan Home in Hong Kong in the fall; late that year, he was baptized by an American missionary. Out of this marriage a son and two daughters were born.
Although not trained for a political career in the traditional style, Sun was nevertheless ambitious and was troubled by the way China, which had clung to its traditional ways under the conservative Qing dynastysuffered humiliation at the hands of more technologically advanced nations.
Forsaking his medical practice in Guangzhouhe went north in to seek political fortunes. In a long letter to Li Hongzhanggovernor-general of Zhili Chihli, now Hebei province, he set forth his ideas of how China could gain strength, but all he received from Li was a perfunctory endorsement of his scheme for an agricultural-sericultural association.
With this scant reference, Sun went to Hawaii in October and founded an organization called the Revive China Society Xingzhonghuiwhich became the forerunner of the secret revolutionary groups Sun later headed.
|History of China - Records of Ancient & Modern Chinese Dynasties||Despite the fact that various warlords gained control of the government in Beijing during the warlord era, this did not constitute a new era of control or governance, because other warlords did not acknowledge the transitory governments in this period and were a law unto themselves. These military-dominated governments were collectively known as the Beiyang Government.|
|Years in exile||Although particular attention is paid to the four years of Chinese Communist Revolution from tothe war actually started in Augustwith the White Terror at the end of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek 's Northern Expeditionand essentially ended when major hostilities between the two sides ceased in|
As far as it can be determined, the membership was drawn entirely from natives of Guangdong and from lower social classes, such as clerks, peasants, and artisans. When the scheme failed, he began a year exile abroad. Inunder circumstances not entirely clear, Sun was caught and detained for 13 days by the Chinese legation in London.
It appears likely that Sun ran into a fellow Cantonese who worked for the legation and was found out and seized while visiting him under an alias. The legation planned to ship Sun back to China, but, before this could be done, Sun had converted a British employee at the legation to his side and got word through to James Cantlie, former dean of Hong Kong College of Medicine.
The British Foreign Office intervened, and Sun was released from his captivity. After spending much of the ensuing eight months reading in the British MuseumSun traveled to Japan by way of Canada. Their aim was to persuade Li Hongzhang to declare independence from the Qing. Instead, he was represented by Miyazaki and two other Japanese at the meeting, which proved fruitless.
Previously, Sun had made contact with bandits and secret societies in Guangdong. These forces began a revolt in Huizhou present-day Huiyang in Guangdong in October The campaign, the second of 10 claimed by Sun between andlasted 12 days.
For this decisive change Sun owed much to two factors: Liang did not actually oppose the Qing regime, but his attacks on Cixithe empress dowager, who effectively ruled the country, served to undermine the regime and make revolution the only logical choice.
In he was able to establish several revolutionary cells in Europe, and in he became head of a revolutionary coalition, the United League Tongmenghuiin Tokyo. The United League was very loosely organized, and Sun had no control over the individual members.
Worse still, all the revolts Sun and the others organized ended in failure. The members fell into despair, and outside financial contributions declined. Furthermore, as a result of pressures exercised by the Qing, foreign governments increasingly shunned Sun.
In the Japanese government gave him a sum of money and asked him to leave the country. A year later French Indochina, where Sun had hatched several plots, banned him completely. Hong Kong and several other territories were similarly out of his reach. In the circumstances, Sun spent a year in —10 touring Europe and the United States.
Returning to Asia in Junehe left for the West again in December after a meeting with other revolutionaries, in which they decided to make a massive effort to capture Guangzhou. This time Sun raised more money in Canada and the United States, but the uprising of April 27 in Guangzhou known as the March 29 Revolution, because of its date in the Chinese calendar fared no better than the earlier plots.
The possibility of revolutionary success seemed more remote than ever. But help was to come from the Qing. If only for self-preservation, the court had sponsored reform since In the next few years it reorganized the army, instituted a school system, abolished the civil-service examinations based on traditional Chinese scholarship, reconstructed many government organs, and convened provincial and national assemblies.
The educated class nevertheless remained unsatisfied with the tempo of change, and the regime was rapidly losing its grip over the situation. The revolution of In the Qing decided to nationalize all the trunk railways, thus incurring the wrath of local vested interests.
Armed rebellion broke out in the province of Sichuanand the court exposed itself to further attacks by failing to suppress it. In October of the same year a local revolutionary group in Wuhanone of many in China by this time, began another rebellion, which, in spite of its lack of coordination, unexpectedly managed to overthrow the provincial government.
Its success inspired other provincial secessions. Sun Yat-sen learned of the Wuhan revolution from the newspapers while he was in Denver, Colo.communist party of china that took over the nationalist party and was lead by Mao Zedong People's republic of china Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Jiang Jieshi and the Kuomintang.
In , the Nationalist party of China, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled from mainland China after a civil war with the Chinese Communist Party. The KMT's failure was due to poor management and widespread corruption within the party/5(2).
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
- The death of Sun Yat-sen brings Chiang Kai-shek to the schwenkreis.com breaks with the Communists and confirms the governing Kuomintang as a nationalist party. - Japan invades and gradually. Nationalist Party, also called Kuomintang, Wade-Giles romanization Kuo-min Tang (KMT; “National People’s Party”), political party that governed all or part of mainland China from to and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then..
Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the. In , the Nationalist party of China, the Kuomintang (KMT), fled from mainland China after a civil war with the Chinese Communist Party. The KMT's failure was due to poor management and widespread corruption within the party.
In , the last Chinese Emperor abdicated, with many parts of China resisting Imperial rule. With this abdication, China disintegrated into various smaller provinces, each .