From powder[ edit ] The granulation process combines one or more powder particles and forms a granule that will allow tableting to be within required limits. It is the process of collecting particles together by creating bonds between them. Bonds are formed by compression or by using a binding agent. Granulation is extensively used in the pharmaceutical industryfor manufacturing of tablets and pellets.
Limited, ModipuramMeerut Abstract Granulation of a powder or mixture of powder is done in order to improve flow, uniformity of contents, better compressibility, improve density and to aid pharmaceutical dosing of the actives.
The review article updates about the latest developments in technologies behind most commonly used wet granulation process. Article deals with in depth basic information about granule growth mechanisms during granulation.
The article also provides an insight to the in-process variables and factors influencing the granulation end point and its determination when a high shear mixer granulator of laboratory or commercial scale is utilized for industrial production.
Granulation technology, wet granulation techniques, end point determination, pharmaceutical process, pharmaceutical technology corresponding author e-mail: Other process which involves the granule formation includes micro- encapsulation, multi-particulate system for modified release mechanism and to prepare granules to be used by patient directly.
The art and science for process and production of granules is known as Granulation Technology. Granulation Technology can be broadly classified into 2 types based upon the type of processing involved: Dry Granulation Dry granulation involves granule formation without using liquid solution as the product may be sensitive to moisture and heat.
In this process dry powder particles may be brought together mechanically by compression into slugs or by roller compression to obtained flakes. Wet Granulation Wet granulation is the most widely used process of granulation in the pharmaceutical industry.
It involves addition of a liquid solution with or without binder to powders, to form a wet mass or it forms granules by adding the powder together with an adhesive, instead of by compaction . The wet mass is dried and then sized to obtained granules.
The liquid added binds the moist powder particles by a combination of capillary and viscous forces in the wet state. More permanent bonds are formed during subsequent drying which leads to the formation of agglomerates. Although the process is most widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, the conventional wet granulation process has following merits and demerits : Figure 1 illustrates the granule growth phenomenon: FIGURE 1 Illustration of granule growth by nucleation and by coalescence  These phenomena often take place simultaneously in the granulation equipment, making the investigation of the effect of an individual phenomenon on the agglomerate properties difficult.
Wetting of the particles is necessary for nucleation, i. Cohesive Force that operates during the moist agglomeration process is mainly due to the liquid bridges that develop between the solid particles, even though intermolecular attractive forces, van der waals forces and electrostatic forces also play an initial role.
When liquid is added to the drug powder during initial stage, liquid film is formed on powder surface. Discrete liquid bridges are then built at the point of contact.
This state is termed as Pendular State, surface tension and the capillary provide the cohesive force during this stage, air is still present between the particles. As the liquid content increases air starts coalesce.
The strength of the blend increases. In this so called Funicular State, the air does not built a coherent phase anymore. As water content increases further all inter-particle voids are filled.
Capillary pressure and interfacial forces at granule surface hold the particles at this stage called Capillary State. Granules attain its maximum strength at this stage. Further addition of liquid, forms solid particles, completely surrounded by the liquid, resulting in the droplet State.
During this stage system consist only two phases, dispersed solid and liquid phase. When the granulation process is finished, the liquid is removed by drying, after that the granule is still kept together by different bonding mechanisms. Wet Granulation Techniques Following are the 4 major techniques which are used for wet granulation process.
Reviews and details of individual technique are also described in order to provide an understanding of each of technique.In situ fluidized hot melt granulation was examined for controlled release.. Glyceryl palmito-stearate was used as non-conventional meltable binder.
• It also functioned . ii) Melt Granulation  Melt Granulation process has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for the preparation of both immediate and controlled release formulations such as pellets, granules.
The bulk properties, compactibility and compressibility of granules produced by wet and dry granulation were compared applying a rotary tablet press, three different morphological forms of calcium carbonate and two particle sizes of sorbitol. Granulation is the process of forming of grains or granules from a powdery or solid substance, producing a granular schwenkreis.com is applied in several technological processes in chemical and pharmaceutical industry.
Typically, granulation involves agglomeration of fine particles into larger granules, typically of size range between and mm depending on their subsequent use. Hot melt extrusion and continuous wet granulation in the pharmaceutical industry Rod Bottom Sales Account Manager [email protected] 2 Topics • Wet granulation involves the agglomeration of a mix of dry primary powder particles using a granulating fluid.
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