Tools and Lessons for Differentiated Writing Instruction Writing A-Z offers a complete collection of resources to improve every K-6 student's writing skills. Emergent Writing Resources- Effective, easy-to-use lessons and tools that teach critical writing fundamentals to early writers Process Writing Resources- Scaffolded lessons that guide students through the writing process for various genres for grade writers Writing Skill Resources- Tools to model and teach a variety of writing skills that students need to become clear, accurate writers Free Samples Free Trial Order Now Interactive Student Writing Tools Writing A-Z delivers a collection of writing tools for students to use to practice their writing skills online.
Human-generated passwords[ edit ] People are notoriously poor at achieving sufficient entropy to produce satisfactory passwords. According to one study involving half a million users, the average password entropy was estimated at Thus, in one analysis of over 3 million eight-character passwords, the letter "e" was used over 1.
A uniform distribution would have had each character being used abouttimes. The most common number used is "1", whereas the most common letters are a, e, o, and r. For example, hacking results obtained from a MySpace phishing scheme in revealed 34, passwords, of which only 8.
This seems to suggest that all passwords must contain characters from each of several character classes, perhaps upper and lower case letters, numbers, and non-alphanumeric characters. In fact, such a requirement is a pattern in password choice and can be expected to reduce an attacker's "work factor" in Claude Shannon's terms.
This is a reduction in password "strength".
A better requirement would be to require a password NOT to contain any writing a-z username and password in an online dictionary, or list of names, or any license plate pattern from any state in the US or country as in the EU.
If patterned choices are required, humans are likely to use them in predictable ways, such a capitalizing a letter, adding one or two numbers, and a special character. This predictability means that the increase in password strength is minor when compared to random passwords.
A "bonus" of six bits is added if both upper case letters and non-alphabetic characters are used. A "bonus" of six bits is added for passwords of length 1 through 19 characters following an extensive dictionary check to ensure the password is not contained within a large dictionary.
Passwords of 20 characters or more do not receive this bonus because it is assumed they are pass-phrases consisting of multiple dictionary words.
Using this scheme, an eight-character human-selected password without upper case letters and non-alphabetic characters is estimated to have 18 bits of entropy. The NIST publication concedes that at the time of development, little information was available on the real world selection of passwords.
Later research into human-selected password entropy using newly available real world data has demonstrated that the NIST scheme does not provide a valid metric for entropy estimation of human-selected passwords.
This can present a problem to an international traveler who wished to log into remote system using a keyboard on a local computer. Many hand held devices, such as tablet computers and smart phonesrequire complex shift sequences to enter special characters.
Authentication programs vary in which characters they allow in passwords. Some do not recognize case differences e. In the past few decades, systems have permitted more characters in passwords, but limitations still exist. Systems also vary in the maximum length of passwords allowed.
As a practical matter, passwords must be both reasonable and functional for the end user as well as strong enough for the intended purpose. Passwords that are too difficult to remember may be forgotten and so are more likely to be written on paper, which some consider a security risk.
According to Bruce Schneiermost people are good at securing their wallets or purses, which is a "great place" to store a written password.
If key stretching is not used, passwords with more entropy are needed. RFC"Randomness Requirements for Security", presents some example threat models and how to calculate the entropy desired for each one.Help Desk Services. Help Desk personnel are located at the front desk of the [email protected], which is located on the lower level of the UIW Student Engagement Center.
Students and faculty may bring their laptops to the front desk for diagnostic services and minor troubleshooting. Most employees need to use StarID and StarID password to login.
Note: If you submit the form and continue to see this page, it usually indicates your username or password are not correct.
Employees can reset their StarID password online. Users won’t be writing their passwords down as any workstation with SecureLogin installed would be able to provision and authenticate them to the site without prompting them for the password.
Sets a random password for the user. SecureLogin can be configured so the user would be allowed/disallowed to look at the existing password or prior. Writing A-Z is a K-6 site that aims to help teachers personalize instruction and improve students' writing skills.
The new interactive tools allow students to create their own books, write essays and complete specific process writing tasks.
Worksheets for teaching the Letter M. Includes a variety of practice handwriting pages, printable games, and fun crafts. More Letter Worksheets (A-Z) This page has letter recognition, tracing activities, and printing practice for each letter of the alphabet, A through Z. Username: Password: Recover Password.
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